Mining Coal, Mounting Costs: the life cycle consequences of coal
Center for Health and the Environment, Harvard Medical School, 2011.
Energy is essential to our daily lives, and for the past century and a half we have depended on fossil fuels to produce it. But, from extraction to combustion, coal, oil and natural gas have multiple health, environmental and economic impacts that are proving costly for society. This report estimates that the life cycle impacts of coal, and the waste stream generated, are costing the U.S. public a third to over one-half a trillion dollars annually.